Robinson won 41 caps for his country and was first choice for England at the 2006 FIFA World Cup. He has been with Burnley since January 2016, making three Premier League starts last season.
The 37-year-old, who began his career at Leeds United and went on to play for Tottenham and Blackburn Rovers, was offered fresh terms at Turf Moor but has instead opted to hang up his boots.
"Unfortunately my back problem returned towards the end of last season and has prevented me being ready for the start of the new season," Robinson said in a statement.
"Taking everything into consideration I've decided to announce my retirement. I have been very fortunate to play the game I love for so many years and make it my career.
"I intend to take a short time out to spend time with my family and explore the different options available to me.
"I would like to sincerely thank all my family and friends who have stood by me throughout my playing career.
"I have been very lucky to play for four very special football clubs and my country, I would like to say a huge thank you to the supporters and staff of every one as I was able to build a very special relationship with each."