Jordy Clasie, Stefan de Vrij, Bas Dost, Ola John, Adam Maher, Ricardo van Rhijn and Nick Viergever have all been called up by Van Gaal, who succeeded Bert van Marwijk after a poor EURO 2012.
While Rafael van der Vaart, Robin van Persie, Arjen Robben and Wesley Sneijder have all been retained, one high-profile omission is Mark van Bommel.
The 35-year-old was captain during Oranje's doomed campaign in Poland and Ukraine but was dropped from the starting line-up for the final group game.
And the former Barcelona, Bayern Munich and AC Milan midfielder's absence for the match against neighbour Belgium would appear to signal the end of his international career.
Van Gaal - in his second spell in charge of the national team, having also led it between 2000 and 2002 - is taking charge of Netherlands until the 2014 FIFA World Cup.
He will hope he can start with a clean slate when Netherlands starts its qualifying campaign against Turkey next month.
It arrived in Poland and Ukraine as one of the favourites for the title having finished runner-up to Spain at the 2010 World Cup in South Africa.
However, it failed to get out of a Group B containing Germany, Denmark and Portugal, losing all three of its matches to finish at the bottom of the table.
Van Marwijk then confirmed his resignation on 27 June after a number of meetings with the KNVB, with Van Gaal officially appointed on 6 July.
Netherlands squad: Tim Krul (Newcastle United), Maarten Stekelenburg (Roma), Michel Vorm (Swansea City); Khalid Boulahrouz (Sporting), John Heitinga (Everton), Joris Mathijsen (Malaga), Ron Vlaar (Aston Villa), Gregory van der Wiel (Ajax), Jetro Willems (PSV Eindhoven), Ricardo van Rhijn (Ajax), Nick Viergever (AZ), Stefan de Vrij (Feyenoord); Nigel de Jong (Manchester City), Stijn Schaars (Sporting), Wesley Sneijder (Inter Milan), Kevin Strootman (PSV Eindhoven), Rafael van der Vaart (Tottenham Hotspur), Vurnon Anita (Ajax), Jordy Clasie (Feyenoord), Urby Emanuelson (AC Milan), Siem de Jong (Ajax), Adam Maher (AZ); Ibrahim Afellay (Barcelona), Klaas-Jan Huntelaar (Schalke), Luuk de Jong (Borussia Monchengladbach), Dirk Kuyt (Fenerbahce), Luciano Narsingh (PSV Eindhoven), Robin van Persie (Arsenal), Arjen Robben (Bayern Munich), Bas Dost (Wolfsburg), Ola John (Benfica), Jeremain Lens (PSV Eindhoven)