The jersey - vacant since Paul Pogba left for Manchester United last year - has also been worn by legends such as Omar Sivori, Michel Platini, Roberto Baggio and Alessandro Del Piero and is recognition of the Argentina international's contribution since arriving from Palermo in 2015.
Dybala has been touted as a potential replacement for Neymar at Barcelona, but Juve seem unsurprisingly keen to keep hold of their man, who previously wore 21.
And Dybala, who has scored 42 goals in 94 appearances for Juve, wrote on Instagram: "When they asked me to change my shirt number, I waited and thought if it was right to leave the 21 that was – and still will be on international duty – a number I care about a great deal, which allowed me to lift many trophies and belonged to top players like Zinedine Zidane and Andrea Pirlo.
"But the number 10 is special. It’s an honour to wear it, as it carries a sense of responsibility and of belonging to the history of a great club like Juventus FC.
"It was on the backs of so many Bianconeri champions: Omar Sivori, Michel Platini, Roberto Baggio, Alessandro Del Piero, Carlos Tevez, Paul Pogba.
"This is why for me today, having the number 10 shirt on my skin is not just a childhood dream come true, but also an even stronger commitment inside of me to bring my team to victory in every game, in every competition and for every trophy."