The Premier League club announced the death of Ehiogu a day after he was taken to a hospital after collapsing at Tottenham's training ground.
"Words cannot express the shock and sadness that we all feel at the club," said John McDermott, Tottenham's head of coaching and player development. "Ugo's immense presence will be irreplaceable."
Ehiogu played for Aston Villa and Middlesbrough, making 355 Premier League appearances in total, and was capped by England four times, scoring once against Spain.
"We're devastated to hear the news that Ugo Ehiogu has passed away," the English Football Association said in a statement. "Our thoughts and sympathies are with all lucky enough to know him."
The current England manager, Gareth Southgate, played alongside Ehiogu at center back for Villa.
Tottenham said Ehiogu, who had been on the coaching staff since 2014, received immediate treatment after collapsing on Thursday afternoon. Medical professionals from three hospitals supported Ehiogu.
Ehiogu began his career as a trainee at West Bromwich Albion before he joined Villa in 1991. He played more than 300 matches for Villa, including its FA Cup final loss to Chelsea in 2000.
He joined Middlesbrough for a then club-record fee of 8 million pounds in 2000, but injuries affected his career at the Riverside Stadium.
Ehiogu had spells at Leeds, Rangers, and Sheffield United before retiring in 2009.