Miura, who will turn 50 on February 26, will enter his 32nd season in professional football this year.
Miura played in 20 league games last year and scored twice. On August 7, he scored in a match against Cerezo Osaka to make him the J-League's oldest scorer at 49 years, 5 months, 12 days.
The veteran striker played four games for Sydney FC in 2005 and scored two goals. He also represented the Sky Blues at the 2005 FIFA Club World Cup in Japan.
Miura has scored 55 goals in 89 appearances for Japan before retiring from international football 17 years ago.
He started his career in Brazil with Santos, making his professional debut in 1986, and had brief spells with Genoa and Dinamo Zagreb in the 1990s.
The forward joined Yokohama in 2005, at the age of 38. He was the oldest player in the top flight before his move from Vissel Kobe.
"I hope to keep fighting with all my might together with people involved with the club, my team-mates and supporters who have always given me support," Miura said.